Frans de Vries is Professor of Environmental Economics in the Division of Economics of the University of Stirling Management School. His research focuses on the design and functioning of environmental markets and market-based environmental policy mechanisms for pollution control and conservation. Another focal point of his research relates to the interaction between environmental policy and technological innovation. Frans has been a consultant for the OECD Environment Directorate and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. He holds an M.Sc. from Wageningen University and a Ph.D. from the University of Groningen.