This initial Foundation topic consists of two parts; the Biology and Physiology of cultured fish and invertebrates, followed by consideration of Diseases and Strategies to Maintain Health. Our overall objective is to present you with ideas about form, function, malfunction and aspects of husbandry and welfare which relate specifically to Aquaculture. The emphasis is placed on satisfying physiological and biological requirements in aquaculture, understanding energy flow and optimising culture conditions. The main viral, parasitic and fungal diseases of fish and shrimp and their diagnosis and treatment are reviewed . Practical sampling sessions and case studies provide the opportunity to gain some hands on experience. This topic will be a useful starting point for those wishing to gain broad knowledge of the main components of aquatic animal biology and health.