Media advertising campaigns are used to promote sales of products, but they can also be used to give the public information about health and to encourage them to be more healthy (eg. adverts encouraging people to stop smoking, or to drink sensibly, or to use condoms). In recent years, we have seen a growth in new types of advertising and media, particularly on the internet and mobile phones. The evidence base on these newer types of media campaign is still emerging.
This systematic review-based study will attempt to pull together all the evidence on media advertising campaigns about health, to provide clear answers to the questions:
By effective, we mean in the first instance ‘do they encourage the changes in behaviour which they are trying to change?’. However, sometimes campaigns do not try to change behaviour, but to move people towards being able to change behaviour in the future, for example by encouraging them to think differently about a health issue, or to feel more confident in their ability to change. We are interested in all of these types of effects.
We will focus on mass media campaigns for alcohol use, illicit drug use, diet, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, and smoking cessation and prevention. By media, we mean campaigns which use television and radio advertising, cinema advertising, advertising in newspapers and magazines, advertising on billboards and other types of outdoor advertising (eg. bus shelters, taxi cabs), advertising on the internet and on mobile phones, and other types of advertising (eg. advertising in video games).
The study will involve wide consultation with public health practitioners and commissioners at national and local level, and with representatives of public involvement groups.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Martine Stead, Kathryn Angus and Fiona Dobbie
External collaborators: Sarah Lewis and Tessa Langley, University of Nottingham; James Thomas and Kate Hinds, University of London, EPPI; Shona Hilton and Srinivasa Katikireddi, University of Glasgow
The purpose of this project is to scope research priorities for communicable disease communication capacity building. The project includes defining priorities and opportunities for research evidence to support development of better practice, mapping research capacity, and the identification of strategy options to progress the development of evidence-based good practice.
ISM Staff: Georgina Cairns, Marisa de Andrade and Kathryn Angus
This project analysed how electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being marketed in UK newspapers and magazines; retail trade press; tobacco journals; company press releases; through television clips and other traditional communication channels and sources. It also investigated marketing on online social network sites.
ISM Staff: Marisa de Andrade, Gerard Hastings, Kathryn Angus, Richard Purves and Diane Dixon
de Andrade M, Hastings G and Angus K (2013). Promotion of electronic cigarettes: Tobacco marketing reinvented? British Medical Journal, 347: f7473. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7473.
de Andrade M, Hastings G, Angus K, Purves R and Dixon D (2013). The Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes in the UK. Commissioned by Cancer Research UK. Stirling: Institute for Social Marketing, November. Report
This project uses innovative methods to explore how illicit tobacco is viewed by deprived communities in Scotland. Unlike the usual survey or interview-based approach, the NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde (GGC) funded study enables participation via workshops on radio production and broadcasting skills. Whilst engaged in this training, participants are encouraged to discuss their perceptions of illicit tobacco and prepare radio programmes. Guided by an assets based approach, it empowers participants by teaching essential skills to improve employability and encourage creativity in communities. Findings will be used to inform the development of a social marketing campaign across the NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde area.
ISM Staff: Marisa de Andrade
ALICE RAP aims to study and analyse the development and place of well-acknowledged and new addictions as a major societal trend in Europe in relation to governance and public policies and responses. The study involves 67 research institutions from 25 European countries covering the humanities, social sciences and biological and medical sciences. Its scientific objectives are:
ISM is contributing specifically to Objectives 1 and 4.
ISM Staff: Martine Stead, Kathryn Angus, Richard Purves, Gerard Hastings, Anne Marie MacKintosh and Crawford Moodie
Health Communications for Communicable Disease (2009-2012)
(Commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Control and in collaboration with the National University of Ireland, Galway)
ISM is working with universities in the Republic of Ireland and Spain to research effective communication approaches and strategies for the prevention and mitigation of communicable disease transmission and impact on health. The research is intended to support the establishment of a programme for dissemination of evidence based health communication activities and innovations on communicable diseases for country support in the EU and EEA/EFTA 2009-12
The project involves a survey-based mapping and evaluating information on the status of implementation of health communication activities in Europe, a qualitative needs assessment of European practitioners with responsibility for health communications to formulate and deliver health communications, literature reviews of good practice, systematic literature reviews of the evidence for effectiveness and synthesis reports of evidence-based practice critical success factors.
ISM Staff: Georgina Cairns, Laura Macdonald, Kathryn Angus and Gerard Hastings
Macdonald L, Cairns G, Angus K and de Andrade M (2013). Promotional communications for influenza vaccination: A systematic review. Journal of Health Communication, 18(12): 1523-1549. doi:10.1080/10810730.2013.840697 eprint
Cairns G, de Andrade M and Macdonald L (2013). Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: A review Journal of Health Communication, 18(12): 1550-1565. doi:10.1080/10810730.2013.840696