Access to Residences
Your occupancy agreement outlines your contracted arrival date. Please note that you should not arrange to arrive prior to this date as there is no guarantee your accommodation will be available to you to move into.
If you have any queries or require directions please speak to the Operations staff or an ALs.
Hopefully, you won’t, but should you have an accident anywhere on campus please report it to a member of University staff as soon as possible who will be able to assist you. If you require the attention of the emergency services (e.g. police, ambulance), then your Operations Assistant will call them on your behalf to ensure they get to you as quickly as possible.
Please refer to the How to Apply section of the website for further details and dates.
Accommodation Services would encourage all students to consider sensible drinking during their time at the University and to respect the wishes and cultures of others who do not wish to drink.
Accommodation Liaison Students (known as ALS’s)
ALS are students just like you, who have been appointed to assist the Operations Assistants and ensure all residents enjoy their time in accommodation. They are a handy source of information and practical advice and provide a vital link between students and Accommodation Services.
Every night the on duty ALS participates in a duty rota within the residences and we would encourage you to contact them if you need some help. You are more than welcome to use the ALS service even if you don’t live in one of the halls.
Accommodation Services has the right to enter a property (including bedrooms) to undertake a cleaning and/or safety inspection, we’ll give you at least 24 hours’ notice of when such inspections are happening.
Further details about inspections and what will happen if your room / property is found to be in an unsatisfactory condition can be found in your Occupancy Agreement.
In order to protect the University’s buildings and respect the living environment of others, we would request that any ball games and played away from buildings. There are some great areas around the Loch or why not get a team together and book a pitch at the sports centre?
There are several designated barbeque sites around the on-campus residences and you are welcome to make use of these. Use of barbeques is not allowed outside these sites.
A bedding pack (2 each of sheets, duvet covers and pillow cases) will be provided for you in your room, please take some time to find your nearest laundry facility. The bedding pack is yours to take away with you when you move out. A pillow and duvet are also provided and we would ask that you ensure these are left in your room when you vacate.
There are standard bike racks located near to residences, please make sure you have means of securing your bike. You are also reminded that bicycles are not permitted to be stored within buildings. We would also ask that you take it home at the end of your contract period.
Bullying and Harassment
The University believes that all students, regardless of their background and personal circumstances, should be treated with dignity, respect and fairness. It has therefore created an Anti-bullying and Harassment Policy for Students.
The University of Stirling is served by excellent bus links from Stirling city centre. At peak times approximately 19 buses per hour run from Stirling to the main University campus. More details about travelling to and from the campus are available here.
Car parking spaces are limited on campus and to relieve the pressure on this, first-year students are not permitted to bring cars or other vehicles onto the campus. Please see further details on car parking here.
All accommodation is self-catered and residents have access to kitchens with cooking and storage facilities. Residents should provide their own cutlery, crockery and cooking utensils. Residents on campus may be interested to know about Refresh, which is centrally located in Willow Court and provides freshly cooked brasserie style food. Click here for more information about catering outlets on the campus.
When staying in University accommodation you have a duty of care to yourself and others to keep your room and flat in a clean, tidy and safe condition. This includes, but is not be limited to:
The University housekeeping team will assist with the cleaning of the ensuite and communal shower rooms and toilets as well as cleaning of the cookers and surfaces in the kitchen. You must allow them reasonable access to do so.
Please note that as a result of holidays, sickness or extenuating circumstances we reserve the right to withdraw or reduce cleaning services at any time.
We hope that you are happy with all aspects of your accommodation, but if you find something that gives you concern there are a number of ways to resolve this. Please note that Accommodation Services will not take any action with an anonymous complaint and if you are complaining about another resident we cannot guarantee your anonymity. Most issues can be settled informally by the residences staff and the guidelines below may assist in this process:
Any conversation with a member of the Accommodation Services team is generally in confidence. However, if the member of staff feels that you would benefit from further help from the University’s SDSS department, or feels you're at immediate risk or if the staff member feels unable to support you, you should note that information will be shared with SDSS staff who will then get in contact with you.
Any submission by a member of staff on behalf of a student (such as for leave of absence or regarding inability to study) will be made only with the student’s full consent.
Should any damage occur to your property we would ask that you report it to your Operations Assistants desk as soon as possible. Operations staff will then report the damage on your behalf to the Universities property management team.
In circumstances where a repair is due to student damage (whether accidental or malicious) residents may be asked to pay for any charges that may result from the damage. Where this damage is in communal / shared areas you may be required to contribute towards the costs, in such cases the total cost may be shared equally amongst all residents. Any student who has legitimate grounds for objecting to this charge (i.e. they can show that they were not in residence at the time when the damage occurred) may make written representation to the Operations Managers. If the Operations Manager is satisfied that the student could not have been responsible, the student will not be charged, and this may mean that other students may be required to pay an increased share of costs.
Please note that costs will include labour and VAT in the final invoice.
We recommend that you refer to our Code of Conduct for more information.
We recommend that you register with a local medical practice as soon as possible, as this will ensure that you will receive medical attention if you require it. We also ask that you provide details to residences staff of the practice where you register so that we can assist you in an emergency.
The University of Stirling has a zero tolerance policy regarding drug use. You should note that any allegations of drug use are always reported to the police for investigation.
In all University properties, the costs of reasonable usage of heating, lighting and electricity are included in the rent. Heating is controlled via a centralised system and you should not, therefore, expect unlimited heating.
All eligible electrical equipment that you bring with you (i.e. stereos, phone chargers, hairdryers etc) should be Portable Appliance Tested (PAT) – refer to Electrical Equipment (PAT Test Form) Form which you should download and bring with you when you move in. Copies of testing certificates should be handed to the Operations Assistants in your allocated residence during your first week after arrival.
If you are coming from outside the UK you should ensure all electrical equipment is compatible with the British national standard of 240V.
E-cigarette fire safety information can be found here
If we want to communicate with you this will always be done via your University email account – please remember to check this on a regular basis.
The Operations Assistants and ALS on duty will deal with any problems as they arise. If you are taken ill or involved in an accident (or know someone who is), you should contact the Operations Assistant desk as soon as you can. In the event of an emergency, you should always contact the relevant Operations Assistants desk in the first instance as detailed below:
|Residence Location||Contact Reception Desk at||Phone Number|
|Alexander Court||Alexander Court||01786 466094|
|Beech Court||01786 466972|
|Juniper Court||01786 466985|
|Andrew Stewart Hall
Fraser of Allander House
H H Donnelly House
Pendreich Way Chalets
|Andrew Stewart Hall||01786 466960|
|Union Street Development
|Union Street Development||01786 466978|
|John Forty’s Court
9 Union Street, Bridge of Allan
Spittal Hill Chalets
|John Forty’s Court||01786 466977|
There is a taxi service which is available only to resident students for non-emergency situations which do not require an ambulance, but which may require hospital attention. This service can be accessed through the Operations Assistants. If you don’t have the money to pay for this service you will be recharged at a later date via a University invoice.
The University also operates a Safe Taxi Scheme which is designed to support students who find themselves in difficulty and who need to get home safely. Full details of the scheme can be found here
The University’s security team provide a 24 hours a day, 365 days a year service, operating from the Security Control Room at the Queen’s Court entrance to the Cottrell Building. They can be contacted on the University's emergency number 2222 (from any internal telephone) or 01786 467999 from a mobile phone.
We would recommend that you look at the information provided on the Accommodation Facilities Chart which shows what you can expect to find in each of our residences.
One of the first things you should do once you have moved into your residence is familiarise yourself with the locations of the fire exits, the fire alarm call points (also known as break glass panels) and the fire extinguishers and fire blankets. You should also take time to read the Fire Action Notice, found in your bedroom and watch the University’s fire safety induction video
If you hear the fire alarm (it is unmistakable – the noise is deafening) you should immediately make your way to the nearest fire exit and leave the building. Following the green fire exit signs and fire notices posted around your residence will lead you to the nearest exit. For the safety of yourself and others, please do not carry any breakable items such as glasses or bottles, as this can be hazardous if broken underfoot.
You will not be able to return to your room until the alarm has stopped and the Fire Brigade and/or University staff have indicated that it is safe to do so.
Fire alarm tests are done on a regular basis and you should check with your Operations Assistant for the details for your residence.
Please remember, no matter how many times there is a ‘false alarm’, we ask that you treat every alarm as the real thing. Failure to observe the fire regulations can also result in disciplinary action being taken against you in line with the Code of Student Discipline.
What if I discover a fire?
Some do’s and don’ts of fire safety……
|1||Report immediately any faults with fire safety equipment||1||Tamper with fire safety equipment – it’s illegal and also a breach of your Occupancy Agreement|
|2||Make sure grill pans do not have a build- up of fat in the tray||2||Don’t cover up smoke / heat or sprinkler devices|
|3||Open windows when you are cooking and keep kitchen doors shut||3||Smoke anywhere inside the residences|
|4||Get your own electrical equipment tested (PAT tests)||4||Leave cooking food unattended|
|5||Exit the building whenever you hear the fire alarm||5||Prop, wedge open or obstruct fire doors|
|6||Use a bar adapter and for overseas students, an appropriate international adapter||6||Burn candles, incense or joss sticks or use any other flammable items e.g. paraffin lamps|
|7||Recycle flammable items promptly e.g. papers, cardboard, bottles||7||Use fairy lights or other similar decorative lighting|
|8||Ensure fire exits and corridors are kept clear at all times||8||Hang flammable materials (e.g. curtains, wall hangings) near heat / light sources|
|9||Keep any electrical cupboards clear – they are not to be used for storage||9||Ignore the fire alarm|
|10||Open fire doors to allow access to others – they are alarmed|
|11||Use cooking equipment (i.e. toasters, kettles, microwaves) in bedrooms|
|12||Access loft spaces or roofs|
|13||Use silver foil on cooking appliances to prevent spills or for room decoration|
|14||Dry clothes on top of the heaters|
|15||Don’t store your bikes inside of buildings – this may stop someone safely evacuating|
The greatest danger from a fire is not the fire itself, but the smoke, which spreads with great speed. To prevent the spread of smoke, fire doors are installed. Please do not wedge these doors open and make sure that you keep all the corridors clear of obstructions.
Please note that for fire safety and insurance purposes, the following items are not allowed in or around the area of any University residence. If they are found, they will always be removed by staff and can only be claimed back on departure.
A number of residences staff are first aid trained and should you require help please contact your reception desk. If you are unable to reach a member of the Operations team please call security on 01786 467003
If you wish to bring any additional furniture or electrical goods into residences please contact us to request permission prior to arrival.
As a responsible landlord and for the safety of all residents, we need to ensure that any additional furniture complies with legislation - we will check the item to ensure it meets the necessary standards. We would ask that all additional furniture items are removed by you at the end of your occupancy period – a charge will be made if items remain in properties.
Andrew Stewart Hall has a games room with pool tables and table tennis. They can also supply board games at students’ request.
The University is running a trial to allow connection of consoles such as Xbox, Playstation and Wii from University accommodation (with the exception of the chalets at Pendreich Way and Spittal Hill). More information can be found on the IS News Blog.
There are procedures in place if you wish to have an overnight guest, please refer to your Operations Assistant for further information.
Please note that we do not allow any overnight guests during fresher's week (either semester) or during exam periods in December and May.
Guest rooms are available in Andrew Stewart Hall and H H Donnelly House and can be pre-booked at Accommodation Services. Availability of these rooms is limited and bookings are not accepted for Fresher’s Week in either semester.
All University residences are licensed by Stirling Council under their Houses of Multiple Occupation (HMO) regulations. Copies of licenses can be viewed by contacting Accommodation Services.
An HMO is a property which is the principal residence of 3 or more unrelated persons.
If you are planning to rent in the private sector, and the property falls into the category of an HMO (e.g. a shared flat), then the owner of the property must have a licence issued by the council.
This licence ensures that certain standards have been met – including fire safety. Ask to see a copy of the licence.
Some general points to look out for:
If you have any questions or concerns please contact Stirling Fire Station on 01786 472223 and ask for Fire Safety.
For further information please refer to our HMO webpage
This form is a record of your name, home address, emergency contact details and relevant medical details and is kept at your Operations Assistants desk. Please let us have your doctors details once you have registered with a local practice.
Insurance (Room & Contents) - from September 2017
The University of Stirling is working in partnership with Endsleigh, to provide some cover for the contents inside your room. You don’t need to do anything to activate this cover, but it is important for you to check and ensure that you fully understand the protection provided and whether it is sufficient for your needs.
Endsleigh knows that life can grind to a halt without your possessions, so it is worth spending a few minutes to establish whether the things that matter to you most are protected both inside and outside your room. They are the only insurance provider recommended by NUS and have been shaping their products and services around their customers’ needs for over 50 years.
Developing products built for students, Endsleigh understands that protecting and replacing gadgets quickly is hugely important to students; that’s why they will replace any lost, stolen or unrepairable gadgets within 24 hours of your claim being approved. Their cover can protect gadgets, watches, bikes and musical instruments under one policy—giving you the flexibility to build your cover to protect the things that matter to you most.
To find out more, visit https://www.endsleigh.co.uk/personal/home-insurance/your-student-cover/?HHRef=HH1582
When you arrive at your residence, you will receive your keys and an inventory form for your bedroom. Please complete this and return to the Operations Assistants desk within your first week. If you are in a flat will also receive a communal inventory all flat are equally responsible for completing and returning this to the Operations Assistant desk.
It is important that you remember to note any issues / problems, as the inventory is kept as an official record of the condition of the room/property when you moved in. The inventory is compared with the condition of the room/property when you leave and you may be charged for any missing items or damages.
If you require a copy, these can be located here
You will be issued with keys to your accommodation on arrival. The keys are your responsibility and you should let your Operations Assistant know if you think you do not have a full set.
Our residences at Alexander Court (townhouses), Willow Court and Beech Court have an electronic door entry system that uses cards for access.
Lost keys or Cards
If you lose your keys or card, please speak to your Operations Assistant immediately. Please note that a payment is required for any replacements. No refunds can be given for any keys or cards that are subsequently found after a new issue is made.
The only piece of cooking equipment that is not allowed in any of the residences is a deep fat fryer.
All cooking equipment must be used only in the kitchens.
Communal laundry facilities can be found at the following residences and cost £2.20 per wash and £1.00 for a dry
In all laundries (with the exception of Thistle Chambers) the machines are operated using a prepaid laundry card. In the first instance, these cards cost £5 (which includes a wash & dry) and can be loaded with credit by visiting the Circuit Laundry website.
Landlord Registration Number
Our Landlord Registration Number is 98941/390/08560
Lifts are provided at Willow Court and Beech Court. Please respect these lifts and remember they are used by students who may have difficulty using stairs or wheelchair users.
If you lose any items contact your reception desk in the first instance – they may well have been handed in. If not, please contact the lost property office on extension 7102.
When giving out your address please ensure to include your room number and the correct postcode. If you are new to the UK, the correct format of your address is available at your Operations Assistant desk.
When you sign for your keys you will also be asked to sign to say that you are happy for staff to sign for your mail as it arrives. Please note that we don’t accept any responsibility for mail and if you are not happy with this you should make alternative arrangements.
You will be sent an email letting you know you have a mail item to pick up, we would ask you to note that staff won’t issue items to anyone other than the named recipient and ID will be required on collection.
Residences staff do not accept mail for anyone who is not a resident of a University residence.
The University provides accommodation both on and off campus, for information on how to find properties please follow the links below.
The University of Stirling is unable to supply fridges for use by students in their bedroom. If you require a fridge prior permission from Accommodation Services is required.
Meningitis can affect anyone of any age at any time and can strike quickly without warning, so it is important that medical attention is sought urgently.
Young people and students can be at particular risk, so to learn more about meningitis and how to recognise the symptoms, please click here
Room transfers will only be considered when all students waiting for accommodation have been allocated unless a special case merits the consideration and approval of the Head of Accommodation Services. Any such case should be submitted in writing to Accommodation Services. Please note that students with rent arrears will not be considered for room transfers and under no circumstances is a student permitted to move rooms without prior agreement from Accommodation Services.
A transfer fee of £25 per person is payable prior to any room transfer. Only once a request to transfer has been agreed, transfer fee payment made in full by both parties and new Occupancy Agreements signed will the University deem the transfer complete at which time students are eligible to move.
Bedrooms within residences have network points installed. Accommodation in all properties are covered by Wi-Fi networks.
Computers connected to the network from residences have access to all the computing resources on campus and also restricted web browsing on the internet. There is no extra cost for this connection. Please contact Information Services if you experience any issues with your network connection.
Please bear in mind that you are living in close proximity to lots of other students and we would ask you to respect them. Please be considerate with noise levels to allow everyone to enjoy their time in residences.
Accommodation Services has a zero tolerance approach to noise during exam periods and in the event of noise coming your room / flat you will be asked to attend a meeting with a residences manager.
When you accepted your accommodation, you agreed to abide by the terms of our Occupancy Agreement, these can best be described as your terms and conditions. You can view this by accessing the online application system, choosing the contracts section and viewing your agreement. This has all of your details (name, student number, room number, etc.) on it. Please note you should print off a copy of this agreement and bring it with you when you come to pick up your keys.
A copy of the current Occupancy Agreement can always be found on our Publications & Documents section of our website.
We know that you may from time to time wish to hold a party in your accommodation. Please refer to your building Operations Assistants for further guidance.
The University employs its own security team. They are on duty at all times and can be contacted on 01786 467003 or via your Operations Assistants desk. More information can be found here
Pets are not permitted in any University of Stirling residence, with the exception of assistance dogs. Prior permission is required for assistance dogs and medical documentation will be required.
We hope that you get along with your flatmates and all other students but at the same time, we understand that clashes of personality do occur from time to time. If you are experiencing problems with other residents please discuss this with the Operations Assistant or your ALS in the first instance. More often than not they will be able to help you resolve the issues but the option exists to escalate matters to the Operations Managers if a solution is not identified.
When it comes time to move onto other accommodation, we are happy to provide references to students, but will not do so for those students with serious disciplinary records or those students who have regularly been in debt with rent payments.
Please complete a Reference Request Form and return to Accommodation Services. Please note a reference can take up to 7 working days to complete so allow plenty of time !
For information on rent payment dates and amounts please refer to our webpage How to Pay
Repairs and Maintenance
If you need to report a repair, please contact your Operations Assistant who will arrange to get the problem fixed. On campus, repairs are normally carried out by staff from the University’s Property Maintenance team – certain residences off campus have repairs carried out by private contractors. Please ensure if private contractors come to your door that you check their ID. Please note that once a repair is reported we cannot guarantee an exact date or time that staff will be attending.
Accommodation Services Office
The Accommodation Services office is located in Willow Court, and staff can be contacted using the details below.
Accommodation Services, Willow Court,
University of Stirling, FK9 4QZ
|Telephone Number||+44 (0) 1786 467060|
|Fax Number||+44 (0) 1786 466844|
+44 (0) 1786 467064
|Postgraduate & Family Contact||
+44 (0) 1786 467066
The front doors to Andrew Stewart Hall are locked at 7pm each weeknight and all day over the weekend. However, your keys will gain you access at any time.
For your security and that of other residents, we strongly recommend that you keep your flat / house and bedroom doors locked at all times.
All areas of residences operate a no smoking policy (inc e-cigarettes). Please respect this and only smoke outside of the building, away from main doors and windows. Please dispose of your cigarette ends responsibly.
E-cigarette fire safety information can be found here
Sub-letting your accommodation is strictly forbidden and any student caught doing so will be considered to be in breach of their Occupancy Agreement.
Accommodation Services can offer accommodation during summer vacation, information will be available from April onwards from Accommodation Services and via the information bulletin.
Telephone Numbers (useful ones!)
The following telephone numbers can be used out of hours for any problems:
|Contact Reception Desk||Phone Number|
|Alexander Court||Alexander Court||01786 466094|
|Beech Court||01786 466972|
Andrew Stewart Hall
|Andrew Stewart Hall||01786 466960|
|Juniper Court||01786 466985|
|Union Street Development
|Union Street Development||01786 466978|
|John Forty’s Court
Spittal Hill Chalets
9 Union Street Bridge of Allan
|John Forty’s Court||01786 466977|
Willow Court, Beech Court, Juniper Court and Alexander Court (townhouse and family accommodation only) are supplied with a TV in the lounge area. The University has licensed this TV. If you wish to have a TV in your bedroom in Willow Court, Beech Court, Juniper Court or Alexander Court (townhouse & family accommodation) you are responsible for ensuring you purchase the correct licence.
All other properties: If you wish to have a TV in your bedroom or in the communal area of your flat you are responsible for ensuring you purchase the correct licence. Details can be found here
The TV Licencing Board have a support pack on their website with screensavers, letter templates and images for student TV Licensing information
You may need your own TV Licence at Uni. Visit the @TVLicensingNews website to find out more: http://bit.ly/OR7492
If you need a TV Licence, it takes just a few minutes to buy one online. Get your student TV Licence now: http://bit.ly/OR7492
We’ve teamed up with TV Licensing to ensure our students know when they need a TV Licence. Check the TV Licensing website now: http://bit.ly/OR7492
TV Licencing Information
You need to be covered by a TV Licence to watch or record live TV programmes on any channel, or download or watch BBC programmes on iPlayer.
This could be on any device, including a TV, desktop computer, laptop, mobile phone, tablet, games console, digital box or DVD/VHS recorder. If you do any of the above without a valid licence, you risk prosecution and a maximum fine of up to £1,000. You will also still have to buy a TV Licence if you need one.
How can I buy a TV Licence?
There are lots of different ways to buy a TV Licence. Whether that’s through weekly cash payments, using your nearest PayPoint outlet, spreading the cost with monthly, quarterly or yearly direct debit, credit/debit card or by post – just choose the one that suits you best.
For more information on the ways to pay, go to tvlicensing.co.uk/payinfo
If I live in halls, won’t I already be covered by a TV Licence?
Your room needs to be covered by its own licence if you're plugged in to watch or record programmes as they're being shown on TV or live on an online TV service, or if you download or watch BBC programmes on iPlayer. If there are TVs in communal areas, check with your halls' manager to see if they’re covered by a halls' licence.
What if I live in a shared house?
You'll probably only need one licence between you if you have a joint tenancy agreement for the whole house – this is the most common type of shared house arrangement. You might need your own licence if your accommodation is self-contained. That means you have exclusive access to washing facilities or your own entrance to the property. You will also need your own licence if you have a separate tenancy agreement for your own room. If you're not sure, check our advice for tenants and lodgers.
Won't my parents' licence cover me?
Your parents' licence will not cover you while you're away at uni unless you only use a device that's powered solely by its own internal batteries and not connected to the mains.
What if I'm not at uni for the summer?
If you're leaving your halls or rented accommodation and moving back home for the summer, there's a good chance you won't need your TV Licence if there's one at home. You can see our policy and apply for a refund online.
What if I don’t need a licence?
If you don’t need a TV Licence, you still need to let TV Licensing know.
Andrew Stewart Hall, John Forty's Court and Alangrange all have a communal TV lounge.
Your Occupancy agreement outlines the date on which you have to vacate your accommodation. More information will be sent to you as this time approaches. The period for which you accepted accommodation is clearly noted and you remain liable for the full rent payment due. In certain cases, occupancy agreements will be terminated early and you should refer to the section on the occupancy agreement about termination which outlines details and charges.
Drinks and confectionery vending machines are available in and around the majority of residences. Please ask at your Operations Assistants desk for the location of your nearest machine.
We would ask that you ensure your room and residence are kept clear of waste and that you dispose of waste in the appropriate bin. Where recycling bins are provided please take some time to ensure your waste is segregated.
Waste Disposal at Thistle Chambers
Two large grey coloured wheelie bins for the disposal of rubbish are in place for the use of the student residents of Thistle Chambers.
These bins are located outside the fire door at the bottom of the back fire escape staircase that leads to the small car park opposite the bus station. As you exit the staircase they are located on the right-hand side of the door and have a notice on them indicating “University of Stirling”.
Please do not use the bins at the front of Thistle Chambers next to the shops as they do not belong to the university. If you leave any bags of rubbish in this area, the local authority’s Environment Service department will go through them to identify who is responsible and will issue a fixed penalty fine for fly-tipping to identified individuals.
It is important that the university adheres to local waste disposal requirements, therefore please note that any persistent failure to dispose of your rubbish correctly will result in an investigation under the code of student discipline, in addition to any action that the local authority may also choose to take.
Your co-operation in maintaining a clean and safe environment for all is appreciated.
We want to make sure everyone settles in and enjoys their time in accommodation. If you feel you need a bit of extra help or perhaps would like to speak to trained counsellors the Universities SDSS department can help. More information can be found here http://www.student-support.stir.ac.uk/
What to bring with you
We have created an Accommodation Facilities Chart showing what you can expect to find in each of our residences. For certain items, e.g. toasters, it is often worth waiting until you arrive and getting together with your kitchen-mates to share the cost. This will avoid several toasters being brought along for the same kitchen.