CRISP research addresses precisely these issues. With our ‘information’ strand we acknowledge that the flow of information about individuals and groups and embodied in new information and communication technologies underpins surveillance processes. Within this strand of work we include the impact of freedom of information, the regulation and transparency of information processing, and the impact of the open data movement. Within the ‘surveillance’ strand we examine the social, ethical and organizational impacts of mass information collection, analysis and application for government or private sector purposes. Our ‘privacy’ strand allows us to examine the different ways in which individuals are affected by personal information processing, and the extent to which they can control others’ access to information about them. We also assess the historical, cultural and moral emergence of privacy as a social value.