Resources related both directly and indirectly to the IMAQulate project will be posted here. This includes project publications, student research, press releases and media outputs, and both primary literature and media relating to the project.
Dr Francis Murray and Co-I Dr Toms Joseph presented project findings and policy recommendations to stakeholders in India and Bangladesh in November 2018. Their presentations from these events are available below.
More information about the workshops is available here.
Project publications will be posted here as and when they are produced.
Use of Prophylactic Health Products (PHPs) in Aquaculture and the Way Forward: popular article in the Department of Fisheries (DoF) publication, Bangladesh
The IMAQulate project featured on The Fish Site: Assessing preventative-health alternatives to antibiotics
Ali et al. (2018) An assessment of health management practices and occupational health hazards in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) aquaculture in Bangladesh (Veterinary and Animal Sciences)
Opiyo, M., Marijani, E., Muendo, P., Odede, R., Leschen, W. and Charo-Karisa, H. (2018) A review of aquaculture production and health management practices of farmed fish in Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine 6(2): 141-148
Sajali, U., Atkinson, N., Desbois, A., Little, D., Murray, F. and Shinn, A. (2019) Prophylactic properties of biofloc- or Nile tilapia-conditioned water against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection of whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 498: 492-502
Resources related to but not produced by the IMAQulate project will be posted here.
Cruz et al. summarise the usage of probiotics in aquaculture, how these came to be widely used, safety measures to be carried out and future prospects for their use.
The Marine Products Export and Development Authority (MPEDA) of India has urged the EU to warn seafood exporters of antibiotic residues and allow time for them to remove the inadequacies before delisting the company.
Indian shrimp exports to the EU have contained increasing levels of banned antibiotic substances in recent months, leading to the threat of a ban on Indian shrimp exports to the EU. EU sampling of shrimp exports has risen to 50%, compared to 10% last year, as a result of this.
The issue of antibiotic residues in India's shrimp exports to the EU is ongoing. At the 21st India International Seafood Show (IISS) in Goa, EU counsellor for health and food safety to the EU, Wojciech Dziworski, said:
'In India there is still a challenge with primary production, intermediaries and the final step of production, something which needs to improve. The use of feed, and feed supplicants, the knowledge is not necessarily there and the controls are not necessarily to the degree that ensures there are no forbidden substances.'
Research from the New York Medical College published in Environmental Microbiology in 2006 that heavy use of antibiotics in aquaculture is detrimental, through increased antibiotic resistance, not only to the farmed animals but the humans who consume them. The paper recommends prophylactic health management practices over the application of antibiotics.
The Indian Government plans to continue India's 'blue revolution' in aquaculture growth, improving training and capacity-building of fish-farmers, encouraging species diversification and proper fish health management, and strengthening the country’s scientific research and the science community’s advising of the private sector.
The Kerala state government is launching an awareness campaign to educate fish farmers on the issues surrounding antibiotic usage, including sanctions on exports. The campaign will target farmers, processors and other stakeholders and aims to reduce the levels on antibiotics being found in India's shrimp exports for which it is risking a ban on exports to the EU.
The move is aligned with the directives of the Union Agriculture Ministry, who are pushing for central and state governments to resolve the issue of antimicrobial traces being found in aquaculture exports, particularly originating in shrimp hatcheries and farms.
Charoen Pokphand Foods Plc (CPF), a livestock and aquaculture feed company based in Thailand, have announced their global policy on use of antimicrobials in their products. The policy, which will take effect immediately for global implementation by 2020, states that:
'The global vision on antibiotics use in animals is to affirm the sustainable production of safe and quality food. Antimicrobials will be used responsibly, taking into account all factors of proper animal care. It must also be in line with sustainable development practices and customer satisfaction. Importantly, to use antimicrobials reasonably and responsibly, CPF is also placing emphasis on disease prevention practices that will minimise the need for antimicrobial use.'
The European Commission is getting increasingly frustrated at imports of Indian shrimp containing traces on antibiotics, and at continued non-compliance and lack of action by the Indian authorities. This has led the EU to ban imports from processing plants from which these shrimp come from, and raises the risk of a ban on Indian shrimp imports into the EU. This could potentially have knock-on effects in other countries including the US, where 50% of shrimp come from India.
Ecuador, already the EU's largest shrimp supplier with 24% market share, have said that they are 'ready to step in' and increase production and exports if a ban is put in place. Ecuador has a clean record on antibiotics in shrimp.
Update 11/10/2017: Andhra Pradesh has announced that it will curb shrimp farming antibiotic use by streamlining aquaculture regulations and raising awareness among stakeholders.
Scientists from the Central Institute for Brackishwater Aquaculture will soon begin mapping the brackish water in the district in an effort to promote farming activity in coastal areas using a combination of satellite images and ground surveys. Existing data is unreliable and this research will improve data potential sites for aquaculture developments.
Andhra Pradesh is 'marching ahead' in shrimp and fish production but lacks food processing units needed to match the growing demand for processed fish.
In the first quarter of the 2017-18 financial year, aquaculture in the state grew by 42% against the target 36%, however there are fewer than 80 processing units - not enough to meet a growing demand according to T V Ramana, Dean of the Faculty of Fish Science, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati.
Research by the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and the country's Central Institute for Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) suggests that Cibamox probiotic water treatment could be effective in reducing ammonia build-up in shrimp ponds.