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Almaida P, de Costa J, Mendiola P & Tocher DR (2012) Changes in tissue and mitochondrial membrane composition during rapid growth, maturation and aging in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 161 (4), pp. 404-412.
Membrane compositions, particularly of mitochondria, could be critical factors in the mechanisms of growth and aging processes, especially during phases of high oxidative stress that result in molecular damage. In the present study, liver and mitochondrial membrane phospholipid (PL) compositions were analyzed in rainbow trout during its four first years of life, a period characterized by rapid growth and high oxidative stress. Specifically, farmed fish of three ages (1-, 2- and 4-years) were studied, and PL compositions of whole liver and liver mitochondria, and fatty acid compositions of individual PL classes were determined. Liver mitochondrial membranes showed a PL composition different to that of the whole tissue suggesting adaptation of cell and subcellular membranes to specific functions. Individual PL had characteristic fatty acid compositions that were similar in whole liver and mitochondrial membranes. Whole liver and mitochondria showed increased lipid peroxidation with age along with changes in membrane PL fatty acid compositions. Most PL classes showed similar changes in fatty acid composition among the age groups, with reduced proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and, generally, concomitantly increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, which together resulted in reduced peroxidation index (PIn). However, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content did not change significantly with age due to increased eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and, in most PL, increased n−6 PUFA. These results suggest there may be oxidation of PL DHA with compensatory mechanisms to maintain membrane fluidity and function. However, modification of fatty acid composition of specific PLs, such as cardiolipin, could affect the electron transport chain efficiency and propagate the oxidative reaction throughout the cell. In addition, both the content and fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin, which has been suggested as a possible mediator of cell dysfunction and apoptosis, changed with age differently to the other PL classes. Moreover, these changes showed different trends between mitochondria and whole liver. These data suggest there is marked oxidative stress associated with rapid growth and maturation in rainbow trout. Changes observed in membrane lipids point to their possible participation in the processes involved in this species response to oxidative stress and damage accumulation rate.
Aging; Cardiolipin; Fish; Mitochondria; Oxidative stress
|Authors||Almaida Pedro, de Costa Jorge, Mendiola Pilar, Tocher Douglas R|
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part b: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Volume 161, Issue 4 (APR 2012)