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Acute stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) is time-of-day dependent: Physiological and oxidative stress indicators

Citation
Vera L, Montoya A, Pujante I, Perez Sanchez J, Calduch-Giner J, Mancera JM, Moliner J & Sanchez Vazquez FJ (2014) Acute stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) is time-of-day dependent: Physiological and oxidative stress indicators, Chronobiology International, 31 (9), pp. 1051-1061.

Abstract
Since fish show daily rhythms in most physiological functions, it should not be surprising that stressors may have different effects depending on the timing of exposure. In this study, we investigated the influence of time of day on the stress responses, at both physiological and cellular levels, in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurataL.) submitted to air exposure for 30 s and then returned to their tank. One hour after air exposure, blood, hypothalamus and liver samples were taken. Six fish per experimental group (control and stressed) were sampled every 4 h during a 24-h cycle. Fish were fed in the middle of the light cycle (ML) and locomotor activity rhythms were recorded using infrared photocells to determine their daily activity pattern of behaviour, which showed a peak around feeding time in all fish. In the control group, cortisol levels did not show daily rhythmicity, whereas in the stressed fish, a daily rhythm of plasma cortisol was observed, being the average values higher than in the control group, with increased differences during the dark phase. Blood glucose showed daily rhythmicity in the control group but not in the stressed one which also showed higher values at all sampling points. In the hypothalamus of control fish, a daily rhythm ofcorticotropin-releasing hormone(crh) gene expression was observed, with the acrophase at the beginning of the light phase. However, in the stressed fish, this rhythm was abolished. The expression ofcrh-binding protein(crhbp) showed a peak at the end of the dark phase in the control group, whereas in the stressed sea bream, this peak was found at ML. Regarding hepatic gene expression of oxidative stress biomarkers: (i)cytochrome c oxidase 4showed daily rhythmicity in both control and stressed fish, with the acrophases located around ML, (ii)peroxiredoxin(prdx) 3 and5(prdx5) only presented daily rhythmicity of expression in the stressed fish, with the acrophase located at the beginning of the light cycle and (iii)uncoupling protein 1showed significant differences between sampling points only in the control group, with significantly higher expression at the beginning of the dark phase. Taken together, these results indicate that stress response in gilthead sea bream is time-dependent as cortisol level rose higher at night, and that different rhythmic mechanisms interplay in the control of neuroendocrine and cellular stress responses.

Keywords
Cortisol; crh expression; crhbp expression; daily rhythms; fish welfare; glucose; oxidative stress biomarkers

StatusPublished
AuthorsVera LM, Montoya Ander, Pujante Isabel, Perez Sanchez Jaume, Calduch-Giner Josep, Mancera Juan Miguel, Moliner Javier, Sanchez Vazquez Francisco J
Publication date2014
Publication date online07/08/2014
Date accepted by journal14/07/2014
PublisherTaylor and Francis
ISSN 0742-0528
LanguageEnglish

Journal
Chronobiology International: Volume 31, Issue 9

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