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Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation

Citation
Steinbauer MJ, Field R, Grytnes J, Trigas P, Ah-Peng C, Attorre F, Birks HJB, Borges PAV, Cardoso P, Chou C, De Sanctis M, de Sequeira MM, Duarte MC, Elias RB & Jump A (2016) Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25 (9), pp. 1097-1107.

Notes
Additional co-authors: José María Fernández-Palacios, Rosalina Gabriel, Roy E. Gereau, Rosemary G. Gillespie, Josef Greimler, David E.V. Harter, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, Severin D.H. Irl , Daniel Jeanmonod, Anke Jentsch, Christoph Kueffer, Sandra Nogué, Rüdiger Otto, Jonathan Price, Maria M. Romeiras, Dominique Strasberg, Tod Stuessy, Jens-Christian Svenning, Ole R. Vetaas, Carl Beierkuhnlein

Abstract
Aim: Higher-elevation areas on islands and continental mountains tend to be separated by longer distances, predicting higher endemism at higher elevations; our study is the first to test the generality of the predicted pattern. We also compare it empirically with contrasting expectations from hypotheses invoking higher speciation with area, temperature and species richness. 


Location: 32 insular and 18 continental elevational gradients from around the world.
  Methods: We compiled entire floras with elevation-specific occurrence information, and calculated the proportion of native species that are endemic (‘percent endemism’) in 100 m bands, for each of the 50 elevational gradients. Using generalized linear models, we tested the relationships between percent endemism and elevation, isolation, temperature, area and species richness. 
Results: Percent endemism consistently increased monotonically with elevation, globally. This was independent of richness–elevation relationships, which had varying shapes but decreased with elevation at high elevations. The endemism-elevation relationships were consistent with isolationrelated predictions, but inconsistent with hypotheses related to area, richness and temperature. 
Main conclusions: Higher per-species speciation rates caused by increasing isolation with elevation are the most plausible and parsimonious explanation for the globally consistent pattern of higher endemism at higher elevations that we identify. We suggest that topography-driven isolation increases speciation rates in mountainous areas, across all elevations, and increasingly towards the equator. If so, it represents a mechanism that may contribute to generating latitudinal diversity gradients in a way that is consistent with both present-day and palaeontological evidence.

Keywords
altitude; biogeographic processes; diversity; ecological mechanisms; endemism; global relationship; isolation; latitudinal gradient; mixed-effects models; sky islands

StatusPublished
AuthorsSteinbauer Manuel J, Field Richard, Grytnes John-Arvid, Trigas Panayiotis, Ah-Peng Claudine, Attorre Fabio, Birks H John B, Borges Paulo A V, Cardoso Pedro, Chou Chang-Hung, De Sanctis Michele, de Sequeira Miguel M, Duarte Maria C, Elias Rui B, Jump Alistair
Publication date09/2016
Publication date online21/06/2016
Date accepted by journal13/04/2016
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
ISSN 1466-822X
LanguageEnglish

Journal
Global Ecology and Biogeography: Volume 25, Issue 9

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