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A transgenic Camelina sativa seed oil effectively replaces fish oil as a dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid in mice

Citation
Tejera N, Vauzour D, Betancor M, Sayanova O, Usher S, Cochard M, Rigby N, Ruiz-Lopez N, Menoyo D, Tocher DR, Napier JA & Minihane AM (2016) A transgenic Camelina sativa seed oil effectively replaces fish oil as a dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid in mice, Journal of Nutrition, 146 (2), pp. 227-235.

Abstract
Background: Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. 

Objective: The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineeredCamelina sativa(20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. 
Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil–containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. 
Results: The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P< 0.001). Significantly lower (36–38%) blood glucose concentrations were evident in the FOH and COH mice relative to C mice (P< 0.01). Hepatic EPA concentrations were higher in all EPA groups relative to the C group (P< 0.001), with concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 2.9, 0.2, and 3.6 g/100 g liver total lipids in the C, COL, COH, FOL, and FOH groups, respectively. Comparable dose-independent enrichments of liver DHA were observed in mice fed CO and FO diets (P< 0.001). Relative to the C group, lower fatty acid desaturase 1 (Fads1) expression (P< 0.005) was observed in the COH and FOH groups. Higher fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P< 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor α (Lxra) or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c) was evident. 
Conclusions: Oil from transgenicCamelinais a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial.

Keywords
n–3 PUFA; EPA; DHA; Camelina oil; fish oil; sustainability; desaturation; Fads; transgenic; TG sn-2

StatusPublished
AuthorsTejera Noemi, Vauzour David, Betancor Monica, Sayanova Olga, Usher Sarah, Cochard Marianne, Rigby Neil, Ruiz-Lopez Noemi, Menoyo David, Tocher Douglas R, Napier Johnathan A, Minihane Anne Marie
Publication date01/02/2016
Publication date online20/01/2016
Date accepted by journal08/12/2015
PublisherAmerican Society for Nutrition
ISSN 0022-3166
LanguageEnglish

Journal
Journal of Nutrition: Volume 146, Issue 2

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