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Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor

Citation
Fonseca-Madrigal J, Navarro JC, Hontoria F, Tocher DR, Martinez-Palacios CA & Monroig O (2014) Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor, Journal of Lipid Research, 55 (7), pp. 1408-1419.

Abstract
Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages.

Keywords
biosynthesis; elongase of very long-chain fatty acids; evolution; fatty acyl desaturases; long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; teleosts.

StatusPublished
AuthorsFonseca-Madrigal Jorge, Navarro Juan Carlos, Hontoria Francisco, Tocher Douglas R, Martinez-Palacios Carlos A, Monroig Oscar
Publication date07/2014
Publication date online02/05/2014
Date accepted by journal25/04/2014
PublisherAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN 0022-2275
LanguageEnglish

Journal
Journal of Lipid Research: Volume 55, Issue 7 (2014-May-2)

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