1. Closing the carbon budget of carbon-rich landscapes such as peatlands, by improved quantification of aquatic C fluxes.
2. Evasion (degassing) of greenhouse gases from surface waters in temperate, boreal and arctic systems; flux measurements and improved process understanding.
3. Development of innovative isotopic methods to measure the source and age of aquatic C, focussing mainly on CO2 in surface waters.
4. Biogeochemistry of small catchments; linking soils to streams.