Innovative Packaging Measures to Communicate Health Risk/Cessation Messages to Smokers (2013-2014)
(Funded by Cancer Research UK)
Tobacco companies creatively exploit packaging to communicate with consumers, through the pack graphics, pack structure (shape, style of opening) and other pack elements such as the tear-tape, cellophane, inner foil, barcodes and also through the cigarette itself. This project will explore other ways, beyond the on-pack health warnings, that packaging could potentially be used to communicate health risk and cessation messages. A number of in-depth interviews will be conducted with marketing and packaging experts to inform this. The objective will be to explore how smokers respond to the range of novel packaging measures that will be developed.
ISM Staff: Crawford Moodie, Richard Purves, Jennifer McKell, Marisa de Andrade and Gerard Hastings
BME Feasibility and Ethnographic Study in Deprived Areas in the Southside of Glasgow (2013)
(Funded by NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde (GGC))
This is a scoping and feasibility study in deprived areas in the Southside of Glasgow, which will build on previous work on the black and ethnic minority ethic (BME) population in the area, focused on smoking cessation and health inequalities. It will provide baseline data for NHS GGC and a policy-oriented report with recommendations for further research, projects and interventions in these communities using an assets based approach.
ISM Staff: Marisa de Andrade
We Can Quit (2013-2014)
(Funded by the Irish Cancer Society)
Through this project we will work with the Irish Cancer Society who wish to commission an action research project to develop and implement innovative community based approaches to support smoking cessation among women from socially and economically disadvantaged communities. The project aims to identify the supports and barriers to quit smoking for women in lower socioeconomic groups and to add to the evidence base about the mechanisms of quitting.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Fiona Dobbie and Douglas Eadie
Barriers and Faciliators to Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy and Following Childbirth (2013-2015)
(Funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR))
This study will explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy through reviewing relevant literature, conducting qualitative research and developing proposals for future interventions. A qualitative study design will combine 3 systematic reviews and 3 exploratory studies conducted over a two year period. A set of literature reviews of barriers and facilitators to cessation in pregnancy and following childbirth will be taken.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Lesley Sinclair, Jennifer McKell and Kathryn Angus
BIBS: Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking Cessation: A Platform Study for a Trial (2012-2013)
(Funded by NIHR HTA and in collaboration with the University of Aberdeen (lead), University of Central Lancashire, Newcastle University and Yorkhill Hospital)
The aim of this research is to find out which incentives (financial or non-financial), if any, are most likely to help women to stop smoking in pregnancy (and not restart) and to breastfeed their babies until 6 months, to benefit the health of both mothers and babies. This project is led by Professor Pat Hodinott from Nursing and Midwifery. We will start by finding research studies and reports about the different types of incentives that have been used. We will see whether they work, how much incentive is needed, the timing and how best to deliver it. We will produce a classification and summary of different types and combinations of incentive, how they work and how they fit with all the other pros and cons or motivating factors for breastfeeding and smoking. This will produce a short-list of the most promising incentives.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld and Susan MacAskill
Effectiveness and Barriers/Facilitators Reviews: Smokefree Secondary Care Settings (2011-2013)
(Funded by NICE and in collaboration with the University of Nottingham)
The aim of the study was to conduct two systematic reviews on:
The purpose was to support the development by NICE of their Public Health Guidance (November 2013) covering smoking cessation in secondary care in acute, maternity and mental health services. The reviews provided the best available evidence on smokefree strategies and interventions in these settings. The reviews were led by the Institute for Social Marketing in partnership with the University of Nottingham and collaborators from the EPPI-Centre at the Institute of Education and the NCSCT Community Interest Company.
ISM Staff: Kathryn Angus, Douglas Eadie and Laura Macdonald
Angus K, Murray R, Macdonald L, Eadie D, O’Mara-Eves A, Stansfield C and Leonardi-Bee J (2013). Review 6: A review of the effectiveness of smokefree strategies and interventions in secondary care settings. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Review
Eadie D, Macdonald L, Angus K, Murray R, O’Mara-Eves A, Stansfield C and Leonardi-Bee J (2012). Review 7: A review of the barriers to and facilitators for implementing smokefree strategies and interventions in secondary care settings. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Review
Improving the Effectiveness and Reach of NHS Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy (2011-2013)
(Funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR))
This project is part of a large NIHR programme grant led by Professor Tim Coleman at the University of Nottingham. The overall aim of all projects combined is to increase the uptake and effectiveness of the NHS Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP) by determining when and how NHS cessation support is best offered in pregnancy; refining and testing 'self-help' cessation methods which are attractive to and, therefore, likely to be used by the vast majority of mothers who do not currently access SSSP and investigating how 'self-help' support is best delivered by the NHS.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld
Evaluating Longer Term Outcomes of NHS Stop Smoking Services (ELONS) (2011-2013)
(Funded by NIHR HTA and in collaboration with the Universities for Bath, Nottingham, UCL, Birmingham and Queen Margaret University)
This 30 month study began on 1st October 2011 and is funded by the NIHR HTA. It aims to examine longer term outcomes from smokers accessing NHS stop smoking services in England. The study involves secondary analysis of routine data from 60 Primary Care Trusts who use the North51 (QuitManager) database followed by a prospective cohort study that will recruit 5000 smokers who will be followed up at four weeks and one year post quit date. In particular, the study aims to examine the efficacy of different models of support to stop smoking and the relationship between individual client characteristics, service features and outcomes.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Fiona Dobbie, Susan Murray and Richard Purves
Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy (CPIT): A Phase II Randomised Trial (2011-2013)
(Funded by the Chief Scientists Office, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, and in collaboration with the University of Glasgow (lead))
Smoking during pregnancy causes low birth weight, prematurity and ill health later in life. Pregnancy is an opportunity to help women to quit smoking before their own health is permanently compromised, but few use effective support of the kind offered by NHS smoking cessation services. Financial incentives may increase participation and engagement in cessation programmes and help women stop smoking. This is a Phase II RCT to examine whether adding incentives will increase engagement with specialist smoking cessation services and subsequent quit rates during pregnancy. It will also identify factors that need to be considered for a design of a Phase III trail. Professors Linda Bauld (University of Stirling) and David Tappin University of Glasgow are joint PIs. The Trial Manager (Lesley Sinclair) is managed from Stirling University. Data collection commences December 2011 and the aim is to recruit and follow-up 600 pregnant women who smoke and who express an interest in support to quit, randomised individually to intervention or control status. Control participants will continue to receive standard cessation services. Incentives in the form of vouchers will be given at key stages during the pregnancy dependant on setting a quit date and remaining quit. Susan MacAskill and Jennifer McKell (University of Stirling) will also conduct process research to contribute to understanding of the feasibility and acceptability of incentives to quit among pregnant women and staff, together with issues around trial participation.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Lesley Sinclair, Susan MacAskill and Jennifer McKell
Tappin DM, Bauld L, Tannahill C, de Caestecker L, Radley A, McConnachie A, Boyd K, Briggs A, Grant L, Cameron A, MacAskill S, Sinclair L, Friel B and Coleman T (2012). The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13: 113-123.
Evaluation of Smokefree Northwest Smokefree Pregnancy Reward Scheme (2011)
(Funded by NHS Sefton and in collaboration with Smokefree Northwest)
This study involved secondary analysis of routine data collected by 24 Primary Care Trusts in the North East of England who were participating in an incentive scheme to help women stop smoking during pregnancy. Women who were CO validated as quitters at four weeks were eligible to join the programme and receive behavioural support, NRT and a small cash incentive (in the form of store vouchers) during pregnancy and up to two months post partum. This regional pilot aimed to respond to the research recommendation from NICE for the need for more UK evidence regarding the effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld and Jennifer McKell
Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy
Part of DH Tobacco Control Health Inequalities Pilot Projects Programme (2010-2011)
(Funded by the Department of Health and in collaboration with the University of Bath, University of Glasgow, University of Nottingham and University of Bristol)
This study was funded by the Department of Health and was one of six tobacco control and inequalities pilots for England. One of the other pilots, on prisons, is also being conducted by ISM.
The project involved the implementation and evaluation of an opt out referral pathway between maternity services in two case study sites in England and the local stop smoking service. Pregnant women entering the pathway were asked about their smoking status and given a carbon monoxide test to confirm smoking status. Those who self reported as smokers or had a CO reading of more than 4ppm are automatically referred to the stop smoking service. In addition, a subsample of women in each area provided a urine sample which was tested for cotinine in order to ascertain whether self report, CO or cotinine provided the most accurate indicator of smoking in pregnancy. The pilot aimed to implement new smoking cessation in pregnancy NICE guidance in full so should provide useful learning for policy and practice.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld
Bauld L, Hackshaw L, Ferguson J, Coleman T, Taylor G and Salway R (2012). Implementation of routine biochemical validation and an 'opt out' referral pathway for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Addiction, 107(Suppl 2): 53-60. Online
Testing the Feasibility of Nicotine Assisted Reduction to Stop in Pharmacies - The Redpham Study (2009-2012)
(Funded by the Medical Research Council and led by the University of Birmingham)
Nicotine assisted reduction to stop (NARS) means treating smokers who do not want to stop smoking but are prepared to reduce smoking with NRT. Trials in highly controlled circumstances showed this increased smoking cessation, but there were doubts about whether similar findings would occur in the NHS. A trial was funded to examine, in a naturalistic setting, whether pharmacists could be trained to implement NARS, how well they do so, and how this is received by smokers and by pharmacists. This also acted as a pilot to prepare for a definitive trial that would answer two other questions; firstly, whether behavioural support adds to the effectiveness of NARS programmes and, secondly, whether short or standard length NARS programmes were more effective.
Susan MacAskill is a member of the Trail Steering Group on this project.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill
Taskila T, MacAskill S, Coleman T, Etter J-F, Patel M, Clarke S, Bridson R, Aveyard P (2012). A randomised trial of nicotine assisted reduction to stop in pharmacies – The RedPharm Study. BMC Public Health, 12: 182.
Action Research: Smoking in Disadvantaged Communities in Nottingham (2009-2010)
(Led by UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies (UKCTCS))
Nottingham had a higher level of smoking than the national average, with smoking prevalence being above 40% in some deprived areas. This study used action research to identify and develop effective interventions for reducing smoking in a disadvantaged community in Nottingham. The study was led by the UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies (UKCTCS), a UK Centre of Public Health Research Excellence, of which CTCR is a partner.
Its objectives were:
A mini-review of interventions/initiatives that have been carried out in communities facing similar challenges to this one to consider whether there may be transferable learning and to develop recommendations for interventions which could be carried out in a further phase of the project.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill and Martine Stead
Process Evaluation of 'Give It Up For Baby' - An Incentive-based Smoking Cessation Programme in Tayside, Scotland (2009)
(Commissioned by NHS Tayside)
Evidence indicated that as few as 20% of pregnant smokers in Scotland, referred by routine antenatal carers, actually engaged with conventional specialist smoking cessation services. There was an emerging body of evidence demonstrating the value of financial incentives to recruiting smokers to quit programmes and to supporting abstinence during pregnancy. However, whilst reward-based programmes had been shown to help initiate and support quitting, it was recognised that to realise their full potential there was a need to develop consumer understanding of how incentives could be integrated with other forms of structured support in order to sustain the behaviour. In view of the developing evidence base in 2007, NHS Tayside launched Give It Up For Baby (GIUFB), a scheme specifically designed to help pregnant women living in deprived communities in the Tayside region of Scotland to stop smoking. Following the first 18 months in operation, the Social Marketing were commissioned to conduct a qualitative evaluation examining participant engagement with the scheme. The results will be used to refine and improve the current intervention and to inform the development of models designed to target new audiences.
ISM Staff: Douglas Eadie and Susan MacAskill
Radley A, Ballard P, Eadie D, MacAskill S, Donnelly L and Tappin D (2013). Give it up for baby: Outcomes and factors influencing uptake of a pilot smoking cessation incentive scheme for pregnant women. BMC Public Health, 13: 343-355. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/343
Incentives to Engage Pregnant Smokers with Specialist Smoking Cessation Services: Feasibility Study in NHSGGC (2008)
(Commissioned by Glasgow Centre for Population Health)
Over 20% of pregnant women smoke in Scotland, rising to over 30% in Glasgow, in spite of risks to mother and baby, making this a priority issue. Specialist cessation support in pregnancy services are well established in NHSGGC, but with variable levels of referral and low levels of engagement. There was evidence that incentives could increase engagement with smoking cessation services, but there was a clear need for robust evidence of the impact of incentives in UK settings. A feasibility study was commissioned by Glasgow Centre for Population Health to identify and help resolve key issues related to the implementation of the proposed intervention and a Phase II RCT. It was largely based on extensive discussions with key informants, where considerable support for the Phase II trial was expressed.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill and Douglas Eadie
Audits of Smoking Cessation Support in Secondary Care and in Pregnancy (2007)
(Commissioned by NHS Health Scotland)
The Social Marketing recently undertook separate studies to audit smoking cessation support activities in two key target settings in Scotland; namely secondary care and pregnancy. The work was conducted in collaboration with the University of Bath and University of Glasgow. In addition to mapping service provision, there was a particular interest in the interface with local primary care-based smoking cessation services and referral processes (especially secondary care) and in perspectives of a range of professionals about services (pregnancy). The studies explored examples of best practice in these settings in Scotland and elsewhere and the findings facilitated considerations in relation to Scottish Guidelines and the forthcoming NICE guidelines.
Smoking Cessation Support in Secondary Care in Scotland
This report outlines findings from a national mapping exercise of smoking cessation support in secondary care in Scotland. The research aimed to map the current extent and nature of cessation support in secondary care, highlighting gaps and also providing examples of promising practice.
Smoking Cessation Support in Pregnancy in Scotland
Findings from this study reveal a number of key learning points for the development and delivery of cessation support in pregnancy.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill and Douglas Eadie
PESCE (General Practitioners and Economics of Smoking Cessation in Europe) (2006-2008)
(In collaboration with a number of European partner organisations; funded by the European Commission & Cancer Research UK)
The PESCE project aimed to motivate increased smoking cessation interventions by GP's in Europe. As socioeconomic factors have been named in many EU countries as a deterrent to routinely practised smoking cessation interventions, an objective was to develop evidence based policy recommendations and implementation strategies to change the socioeconomic environment through political measures to motivate greater involvement of GP's in cessation interventions. The Centre for Tobacco Control Research conducted an academic literature review to provide evidence of the factors that hinder or promote GP's smoking cessation interventions, and coordinated the collection and review of grey literature from the EU member countries, Norway and Switzerland to complement this. These two reviews fed into the final European report, recommendations and strategies.
ISM Staff: Martine Stead, Gayle Tait (left 2009) and Kathryn Angus
Evaluation of the PATH (Partnership Action on Tobacco and Health) Support Fund on Smoking Cessation Services for Pregnant Women and People Facing Inequalities (2003-2006)
(Funded by the Scottish Executive and managed by ASH Scotland; in collaboration with Scottish Centre for Social Research and University of Edinburgh)
In 2002, the PATH programme allocated funds to support 10 creative local pilot projects in smoking cessation work over three years with specific target groups of pregnant women and people faced with inequalities, ie. high risk groups that reflect the priorities of the Government's White Paper "Smoking Kills". The external evaluation was conducted in collaboration with the Scottish Centre for Social Research and University of Edinburgh, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. It ran in conjunction with the projects (2003-06) and assessed how each pilot was established, developed and delivered. Project outcomes were evaluated on their relationship with individuals and how they impact on individuals' behaviour and, more widely, their impact on local and national organisations and structures. The evaluation also analysed and interpreted the internal evaluations collected by each of the funded projects. The final report and summary report are now available from the ASH Scotland website.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill, Martine Stead and Kathryn Angus
Pre-test of Smoking Cessation Booklet
(Commissioned by The National Assembly for Wales (NAW), Public Health Strategy Division)
In the UK, cigarette smoking remains the single largest cause of death and disability. This is particularly the case in Wales where it has been estimated that 7,000 people die each year from tobacco related illnesses, costing the NHS in Wales £70 million per year. In Wales, as in other parts of the country, smoking prevalence amongst adults has declined steadily. Providing encouragement and support in quitting is key to continuing this trend amongst adult smokers. The Better Health Better Wales consultation document and the NHS Plan for Wales, Improving Health in Wales, were committed to provide support and improve quality of health information to assist health promotion in key priority areas such as smoking. These policy initiatives provided the impetus for the development of smoking cessation strategies and resources to support health professionals working with adult smokers wishing to quit.
Qualitative research was conducted to pre-test the smoking cessation booklet 'Stopping Smoking Made Easier'. Eight focus groups were conducted with adult smokers (16-64 year old) in Wales, quota-sampled by age, socio-economic status, gender, cessation experience and geographic location.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the potential impact of the booklet design and content on a cross-section of adult smokers. More specifically, the research sought to assess the content with regard to the target audience's information needs, assess the comprehension and credibility of key messages and offer guidance on style, format, colour, imagery and tone of language.
CTCR Staff: Lynn MacFadyen and Elinor Devlin (left 2005)
Tobacco-Related Work in Prisons (2003)
(Commissioned by Prison Health and the Tobacco Policy Team at the Department of Health)
A mapping exercise was undertaken of current and planned smoking cessation work with prisoners and staff, and of wider prison tobacco-related activities, across NHS smoking cessation services and HM Prison Service. The information was disseminated in seminars held across England and Wales and will facilitate future developments in this key area.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill and Susan Anderson (left 2005)
Follow-Up Study Of DH Funded Provision of NRT in HM Prisons (2003-2005)
(Commissioned by Prison Health and the Tobacco Policy Team at the Department of Health)
This study evaluated the impact of Department of Health-funded NRT in prisons from 2003-2005. The research adopted a case study approach, using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to explore processes relating to the administration of NRT in the prison context, and to measure smoking cessation outcomes over one year. Projects in a number of prisons in the North West Region in England were evaluated.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill and Douglas Eadie
MacAskill S (2005). The Impact of DH Funded Provision of NRT in HM Prisons. Revised Findings. Stirling: Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling, November. Available here
MacAskill S and Hayton P (2007). Stop Smoking Support in HM Prisons: The Impact of Nicotine Replacement Therapy - Executive Summary and Best Practice Checklist. Stirling: Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling, March. Available here
Smoking Cessation in Prisons (2001-2002)
(Commissioned by the Department of Health and Prison Health)
Around 80% of the UK 's prison population smoke and the prison setting represents an opportunity to access key smoking cessation target groups that are normally hard to reach, for example disadvantaged populations and younger men. The Department of Health and the Prison Service commissioned an evaluation of pilot interventions in four prisons in conjunction with local smoking cessation services (MacAskill & Eadie 2002). This showed substantial quit rates could be achieved, as well as providing insights into barriers and facilitating factors in service delivery. The results informed the content of the toolkit document 'Acquitted', published by the Department of Health in March 2003 (Braham 2003).
A second questionnaire based study mapped tobacco related activity across HM Prison Service and NHS smoking cessation services (MacAskill & Eadie 2003). Results were actively disseminated, including regional road shows aimed to promote 'Acquitted' and to encourage focus on the issue across the PCT and prison service interface at a local level.
The earlier findings contributed to the Department of Health decision to provide £500,000 of ring-fenced funding for provision of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (2003-2006). Our third study gathered insights into the impact of this funding, as well as service models and approaches, and informed policy and practice across the prison estate and PCTs hosting prisons (MacAskill 2006). Findings have been presented at various seminars, including an invited workshop and poster at the UK National Smoking Cessation Conference. Key findings and a 'best practice checklist' have been published and were 'launched' at a national conference in March 2007 which also addressed Smokefree issues in this setting.
ISM Staff: Susan MacAskill, Douglas Eadie and Martine Stead
Eadie D, MacAskill S, McKell J and Baybutt M (2012). Barriers and facilitators to a criminal justice tobacco control coordinator: An innovative approach to supporting smoking cessation among offenders. Addiction, 107(Suppl2): 26-38.
MacAskill S, Lindridge A, Stead M, Eadie D, Hayton P and Braham M (2008). Social marketing with challenging target groups: Smoking cessation in prisons in England and Wales. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 13(3): 251-261.
MacAskill S and Eadie DR (2002). Evaluation of a Pilot Project on Smoking Cessation in Prisons - Final Report. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for Tobacco Control Research.
Braham MW (ed) (2003). Acquitted: best practice guidance for developing smoking cessation services in prisons.London: Department of Health / HM Prison Service. Report available in PDF format
Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Literature Review and Evaluation of Pilot Projects (2000-2001)
(Commissioned by The National Assembly for Wales)
This two-phase study comprised: (1) A comprehensive literature review of current practice and theoretical developments in the area of adolescent smoking cessation, and (2) A process evaluation of innovative adolescent smoking cessation projects that ran in Wales from October 2001 to March 2002. Young smokers differ from adult smokers in their perceptions of their smoking status, understanding of addiction and motivation to quit. Adult cessation services were judged likely to be inappropriate in this project, which instead tried to work with young people in settings which were familiar to them (schools, colleges and youth centres), using youth work approaches and methods. The aim of the study was to identify factors which helped and hindered the delivery of the projects, assess the comparative success of the various projects, and to make recommendations for best practice for future programmes. The evaluation findings were presented to those connected with the projects and other youth cessation workers in Summer 2002 and informed later stages of work in this area. A project model was rolled-out across several European countries, supported by the EU. Martine Stead acted as consultant to the CISHE research group at Cardiff University, who were evaluating the European programme.
ISM Staff: Martine Stead, Susan MacAskill and Lynn MacFadyen
MacFadyen L, MacAskill S, Stead M and Eadie DR (2002). A Review of Adolescent Smoking Cessation. Technical Report No. 3. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government. ISSN: 1478-7822.
An Investigation into Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Communities (1998-2000)
(Funded by Cancer Research UK)
This large multi-phased investigation into the prevalence and nature of smoking and smoking cessation in low income communities incorporated five stages of research: literature review; qualitative developmental research (MacAskill et al 1999); pilot study and large postal survey with adult smokers; and further qualitative study exploring smokers' and professionals' response to cessation interventions. It was conducted in four communities in Glasgow with low 'Depcat' scores. Survey findings showed higher smoking prevalence in low income areas compared to the general Scottish population (57%), a distribution across the Stages of Change skewed towards Pre-contemplation, and a strong and consistent relationship between least readiness to quit and material and employment disadvantage. Both stages of qualitative research gave considerable insight into the factors reinforcing continued smoking and inhibiting cessation, as well as potential areas for support. Respondents included members of local community groups, individual participants in services interviewed in their own homes, and workers and professionals in local community and primary care based organisations. Two papers have been published from this research (Stead et al 2001; MacAskill et al 2002) and several conference papers and seminar presentations given.
CTCR Staff: Martine Stead, Susan MacAskill and Anne Marie MacKintosh
Reece J, MacKintosh AM, Stead M and MacAskill S (2000). An investigation into smoking cessation in disadvantaged communities: Incentivised postal survey - report to The Cancer Research Campaign. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for Social Marketing: September.
Stead M, MacAskill S, MacKintosh AM, Reece J and Eadie DR (2001). "It's as if you're locked in": Qualitative explanations for area effects on smoking in disadvantaged communities. Health and Place, 7(4): 333-343.
MacAskill S, Stead M, MacKintosh AM, Eadie DR and Hastings GB (1999). An investigation into smoking cessation in disadvantaged communities: Qualitative focus group research - report to the CRC. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, Centre for Social Marketing: May.
MacAskill S, Stead M, MacKintosh AM and Hastings GB (2002). "You cannae just take cigarettes away from somebody and no' gie them something back": Can social marketing help save the problem of low income smoking? Social Marketing Quarterly, VIII(1): 19-34.